Posthumously awarded

   
  Pharaoh
Thutmose III

Egypt
   
  King Solomon
Israel
  King Alexander
the Great

Macedon
  Emperor Charlemagne
France-Germany
  King Richard Lionheart
England
  King Alfonso X
Spain
  Emperor Peter
the Great

Russia
  King Gustav II Adolf
Sweden
  Emperor Frederick II the Great
Germany
  Queen Eleonor
of Aquitaine

France-England
  Empress Elisabeth
of Austria

Austria- Hungary


 

 


 


Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615.


.....Where our Motto come from


THOMAS MOWBRAY to KING RICHARD II
"Richard II" (1.1.185-6)

Yea, but not change his spots : take but my shame.
And I resign my gage. My dear dear lord,
The purest treasure mortal times afford
Is spotless reputation: that away,
Men are but gilded loam or painted clay.
A jewel in a ten-times-barr'd-up chest
Is a bold spirit in a loyal breast.
Mine honor is my life; both grow in one,
Take honor from me, and my life is done:

Then, dear my liege, mine honor let me try;
In that I live and for that will I die.


Act I


Note: In the first three folios of Shakespeare, 1623, 1632 and 1663-6, honor and honour were used indiscriminately and in almost equal proportions; English spelling was still fluid, and the -our -form was not consistently adopted until the fourth folio of 1685.

 

King Richard II
By the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland

Richard II ( January 6, 1367 February 14, 1400 ) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent". He was born in Bordeaux and became his father's heir when his elder brother died in infancy.
Out of the fact that Richard was born at Epiphany and that three kings were present at his birth came a legend that, despite being a second son, he was destined for great things. He became heir to the throne of England, and was created Prince of Wales, when the Black Prince died suddenly in 1376 . The following year his grandfather King Edward III of England also died, leaving Richard as king at the age of only ten.

 

William Shakespeare ( baptised April 26 , 1564 died April 23 , 1616 ) was an English poet and playwright widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language, as well as one of the greatest in Western literature , and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He wrote about thirty-eight plays and 154 sonnets , as well as a variety of other poems.

Click to enlarge

William Shakespeare's signature


William Shakespeare
Greatest English dramatist & poet
 

 

The Tragedy of King Richard the Second is a play written by William Shakespeare around 1595 and based on the life of King Richard II of England . It is the first part of a tetralogy, referred to by scholars as the Henriad , followed by three plays concerning Richard's successors: Henry IV, part 1 , Henry IV, part 2 , and Henry V , and may not have been written as a stand-alone work.

Although the First Folio (1623) edition of Shakespeare's works lists the play as a history play, the earlier Quarto edition of 1597 calls itself The tragedie of King Richard the second .

King Richard II ( Play )

King Richard II begins with Henry Bolingbroke accusing the Duke of Norfolk, Mowbray for the Duke of Gloucester's death, the brother of King Richard II. Mowbray did not murder him. However he does not reveal that King Richard II ordered this nor that he could have prevented Gloucester's death. To settle the dispute, King Richard II decides to let the men joust, only to later decide that they shall both be banished (Mowbray for life, Bolingbroke for five years) instead. Mowbray correctly predicts Bolingbroke's return and his hand in Richard II's downfall. Henry Bolingbroke's father Gaunt soon dies, largely from sorrow at his son's banishment, Richard II wasting little time in seizing the late Duke's estate since he needs money to fight the Irish.

Henry Bolingbroke, meanwhile has secretly returned, finding that the nobles of England are far from happy with the Duke of York, Richard's II deputy whilst he is fighting in Ireland, and are moving against him. Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland is the most vocal in criticising Richard for stealing from Gaunt, taxing commoners, unfairly fining nobles for ancestor's crimes and wasting England's wealth. Richard returns from Ireland to find not only the banished Bolingbroke but also that the lands he took from Bolingbroke's father have been reclaimed in Henry's name! Even worse, he discovers Bolingbroke has seen fit kill his favorites Sir John Bushy, Sir John Green and the Earl of Wiltshire. The Duke of Aumerle, the Duke of York's son, tries to help Richard II, confident that the heavens will aide his cause.

Unfortunately for Richard, his army disbands upon hearing the false rumor that he is dead. The commoners seeing no army, revolt, even the Duke of York joining Bolingbroke's rebellion. Realising he barely controls England, Richard II goes into hiding at Flint Castle. Bolingbroke meets Richard II at the castle, asking him to overturn his banishment order in return for peace, Bolingbroke instead imprisoning the King in London. Before Parliament, cornered, and with little option, the monarch is forced to confess his many crimes against England, resulting in his handing over the crown to Bolingbroke who later becomes King Henry IV.

With Richard losing the throne, and his the Queen sent back to her native France, Aumerle, the son of the Duke of York, plots against Henry IV, planning on poisoning him at Oxford. The plot discovered, Aumerlie is shown mercy whilst Richard II is imprisoned at Ponfret Castle, Sir Pierce of Exton killing him in the mistaken belief it is Henry IV's wish. The deposed monarch did not go quietly, killing two of Exton's accomplices. Henry IV banishes Exton, Henry IV upon seeing Richard II's dead body, denounces the killing, though he did desire it in part, deciding to mount a Holy crusade (which he never has the opportunity to launch) as atonement for his death.

 

 

 


Footnotes:

Links:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespeare
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II (Play)
http://absoluteshakespeare.com/plays/richard_II/richard_II.htm



Homepage
 
Follow us on
 
 Some of our Members:
   
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Lady Nadia Nachhab
Futher information
Sir Sheikh Abdullah
Futher information
Sir Charbel Tannous
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Sir Javier Bernal
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information
Futher information