We have to consider that Christian crowns have a cross, and Muslim crown have a spearhead (royal coat of Jordan) or a star (royal coat of Morocco), due we are making a calling for men of honor worldwide under the concept of honor, we have decided to put one of most precious diamond representing " Honor", as the most beautiful and hard stone, based on the concept thathonor are the diamonds of our souls.
The Cullinan Diamond, found by Frederick Wells, surface manager of the Premier Diamond Mining Company in Cullinan, Gauteng, South Africa on June 25 1905 , is the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). Although a carbonado found in Brazil weighed more than 3,600 carats (720 g), no gem-quality material could be extracted from it. The stone was named after Sir Thomas Cullinan , the owner of the diamond mine.
The largest polished gem from the stone is named Cullinan I or the Great Star of Africa, and at 530.2 carats (106.04 g) was the largest polished diamond in the world until the 1985 discovery of the Golden Jubilee diamond (545.67 cts), also from the Premier mine. Cullinan I is now mounted in the head of the Sceptre with the Cross.
The Crown of the Royal Honor Coat
Royal Coat of United Kingdom
Royal Coat of Liechtenstein
Royal Coat of Jordan
A famous moralist from XVIII, Cornelius Lapid, said: there are three kinds of crowns: the law one, the priesthood one, and the Empire one, but the crown of honor, of good reputation, is much more illustrious and precious that all of them.
Crown in gold, with eight rosettes, five visible (because five are the Christ's Wounds, five are the Moses´s books in in Judaism, five are Islam´s pillar, (like the Jordan crown), and five are the Buddish precepts ), and eight pearls interspersed, closed at the top by eight diadems also adorned with pearls and surmounted by a diamond.
Honor præmium virtutis (Honour is the reward of virtue) Marcus Tullius Cicero
The double-headed eagle is a common symbol in heraldry and vexillology. It is most commonly associated with the Holy Roman Empire and with the Byzantine Empire.
In Byzantine heraldry, the heads represent the dual sovereignty of the Emperor (secular and religious) and/or dominance of the Byzantine Emperors over both East and West. Several Eastern European nations adopted it from the Byzantines and continue to use it as their national symbol to this day, the most prominent being Russia.
However, the design was in use in the East for centuries before it was officially adopted by the Byzantines, and was independently adopted as the symbol of several other historical states, such as early medieval Armenia and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.
Double-headed eagles have been present in imagery for many centuries. The two-headed eagle can be found in archaeological remains of the Hittite civilization dating from a period that ranges from the 20th century BC to the 13th century BC.
Cylindric seals discovered in Bogazkoy, an old Hittite capital in modern-day Turkey , represent clearly a two-headed eagle with spread wings. The aesthetics of this symmetrical position explains in part the birth of this religious figure. It probably dates from the 18th century BC, and was used in a tradesman background. It can also be seen in the same region in two monumental settings: in Alacahoyuk around 1400 BC and in Yazilikaya before 1250 BC . Here the context looks different and totally religious: the eagle becomes a divinity symbol. The two-headed eagle slowly disappears during the last Hittite period, from the 9th century BC to the 7th century BC, and totally disappears after the end of the empire.
The double-headed eagle was also in use by the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia and the Mamikonian family in the 3rd to 9th centuries.
Constantinople was the successor of Rome, and the Byzantines continued the use of the old imperial "single-headed" eagle motif. Although the roots of the transformation to double-headed are almost certainly connected with old depictions in Asia Minor, the details of its adoption are uncertain. It was, however, used in already during the first centuries AD and certainly before the 10th century AD by Armenians and Persians, appearing in their art (see above).
According to the most prevalent theory of the double-headed eagle's use in Byzantine Empire, the imerial Roman single-headed eagle was modified to double-headed by emperor Isaakios Komnenos (1057-1059) being influenced from local traditions about such a beast (the haga ) in his native Paphlagonia in Asia Minor.
Seal of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Local legends talked about this giant eagle with two heads that could easily hold a bull in its claws; the haga was seen as a representation of power, and people would often "call" it for protection. Isaakios Komnenos, deeply influenced by these beliefs, had already used it as a family emblem. As there has been reference to "stone representations" of the eagle that were the inspiration for its picture, it is reasonable to assume that Hittite carvings may have been the sources of the myths themselves, but other relevant artwork cannot be excluded as such a source. Whether the eagle became an "imperial" symbol or remained purely a personal symbol for Komnenos, is not clear.
It is noteworthy that originally Roman armies used no flags. Instead, bronze Aquilas and vexilloids and, if the emperor was present, pikes or banners with the emperor's portrait were used. With the adaption of Christianity as religion, and especially during the later Empire, single-headed eagles were fielded together labarum symbol, crosses and banners, embroidered with the emperor's portrait, were additionally adorned with crosses and other Christian symbols. It is possible that, after the Byzantines encountered Western knights and armies during the First Crusade , they observed the heraldic use of various emblems and attempted to emulate it later.
After the Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204, it was used by the successor states of Epirus and Nicaea . The first mention of a double-headed eagle in the West dates from 1250 in a roll of arms of Matthew of Paris for Emperor Friedrich II of the Holy Roman Empire . Theodore II Laskaris chose it for his symbol as Emperor ( Empire of Nicaea ), taking it to symbolize his state's claims to all the Byzantine Empire's former domains, both European (West) and Asian (East). An alternative (and probably more correct) interpretation is that the eagle symbolized the Emperor's double temporal and spiritual sovereignty.
After the recapture of Constantinople and the restoration of the Byzantine Empire, the symbol was used as an emblem of the imperial family, but it is uncertain whether it was the official emblem of the Empire. More recent research has suggested that it was not, its usage being limited to imperial seals and other personal or dynasty symbols such as imperial robes, although there has been no depiction of any Emperor wearing it. The role of "state" symbols was most probably played by flags with the cross. In Byzantine usage, the eagle was almost always connected with colors of imperial power (gold and purple). A black eagle on golden background was used outside the imperial family, denoting the subordinate position (the eagle was black as being the 'shadow' of the Emperor's golden eagle) of their bearers.
Use by the Turks :
The double-headed eagle became the standard of the Seljuk Turks with the crowning of Toghrul (meaning "Eagle") Beg at Mosul in 1058 as "King of the East and the West" and was much used afterwards . The Sultans of Rum, Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I (1220-1237) and his son Kaykhusraw II (1237-1246) used the bicephalous eagle in their standards , and the motif was also found on tissues, cut stones, mural squares, and Koran holders.
Turcomans who ruled in Anatolia during the 13th century, inherited it from the Seljuk Turks. Islamic coins from the reign of Khalif Nasreddin Mahmoud bin Mohammad, following Turkish influence, sport a double-headed eagle on one side and the Star of David on the other as early as year 1200.
Holy Roman Empire
The first mention of a double-headed eagle in the West dates from 1250, in a roll of arms of Matthew of Paris for Emperor Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire. Usually depicted black on a gold background, it replaced the earlier single-headed eagle, and was subsequently adopted in the coats of arms of many German cities and aristocratic families.
After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the double-headed eagle was retained by the Austrian Empire, and served also as the coat of arms of the German Confederation .
Use by other countries
From Byzantium, two-headed eagles spread to Russia after Ivan III 's marriage to Zoe Palaeologina , and to Montferrat , where a cadet branch of the Palaeologi ruled. It was the charge in the Coat of Arms of the Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Alexander (reigned 1331-1371).
The Serbian Nemanjic dynasty adopted a white version as their own to signify their own independence of, and indeed, claim to the imperial throne of Constantinople. The white eagle was retained by most Serbian medieval dynasties, as well as the Karadordevic, Obrenovic and Petrovic-Njegos houses and remains to this day in use in the coat-of-arms of the countries of Serbia and Montenegro.
George Kastrioti ( Skanderbeg ) adopted a similar flag in his struggle against the Ottomans, consisting of a black eagle on red background, which has been resurrected in the current Flag of Albania. During the next centuries, the eagle was made to hold a sword and/or a sceptre and an orb with a cross, symbols of the aforementioned double sovereignty.
Its usage also survived as a decorative element in the Greek Orthodox Church, which was the inheritor of the Byzantine legacy during the Ottoman Empire, while it remained a popular symbol among Greeks.
In modern Greece various variations of the two-headed eagles are used in Church flags (based on Byzantine flag patterns) and, officially, by the Greek Army (Coat of Arms of Hellenic Army General Staff). The bird found its way into the Greek coat of arms for a brief period in 1925-1926.
It remains also an important motif in the heraldry of the imperial families of Russia (the House of Romanov) and Austria-Hungary (the House of Habsburg ), as well as the royal family of Montenegro (the House of Petrovic ).
Examples of double-headed eagle :
House of Petrovic-Njegos (Montenegro)
House of Karadordevic (Serbia)
Eagle of Leofric Earl of Mercia (England)
Coat of arms of the Austrian Empire
Coat of arms of Toledo (Spain)
Coat of arms of the
Coat of arms of the Russian Federation
Coat of arms of Montenegro
Royal House of Zogu
Escutcheon of the Order
From de Great seal of the Spanish King Alfonso X the Wise
First quotation:William Shakespeare (1564–1616), English poet and playwright.Troilus and Cressida, Act V. Scene III. Marcus Tullius Cicero: January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman , lawyer, political theorist , philosopher , and Roman constitutionalist . Cicero is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.